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Others / Autres

Here are some more technologies with low development efforts or not fully automated
Voici quelques autres technologies qui n'ont pas été très développées, ou qui ne sont pas entièrement automatisées

Odour / Odeur

You will find many documents speaking of body odor, but not many giving a link to a serious article... To my best knowledge, the article from Korotkaya is one of the best on this subject, with a bibliography.
On en parle beaucoup, mais avec peu de référence vers un article sérieux. Voici le meilleur article sur le sujet à ma connaissance, avec une bibliographie.

  • Biometric Person Authentication: Odor (Korotkaya) Lappeenranta University of Technology
  • A British company, Mastiff Electronic Systems Ltd., has worked on such a system using a sensor named Scentinel. The product is prohibitively expensive (about US$50,000) and still years away from commercial release. No information available on their website.
    Une entreprise britannique, Mastiff Electronic Systems Ltd., a travaillé sur un tel système en utilisant un capteur dénommé Scentinel. Le produit est extrêmement cher (environ 50k$), et à des années d'une version commercialisable. Aucune information disponible sur leur site web.

    (2007 Jan) The researchers, from Bristol University, the University of Vienna in Austria and Indiana University in the US, have developed a way of analysing the traces of scent that every person leaves behind.


    Reflection of acoustic waves in the head
    Réflexion d'ondes acoustiques dans le crâne

    Developped by Dr. James Wayman for the DoD.
    Développé par le Dr James Wayman pour le département de la défense américain.

    Skin impedance
    Impédance de la peau

    One company has proposed to identify people using skin impedance. Still in R&D phase.
    Une compagnie a proposé de la reconnaissance utilisant l'impédance de la peau. Encore au niveau de la recherche.

    Hand pressure profile
    profil de pression de la main

    The WO03069540 patent granted to Tactex proposes to identify persons using the pressure profile of the hand. No information on their website.
    Le brevet WO03069540 déposé par Tactex propose une identification grâce au profil de pression de la main. Aucune information disponible sur leur site web.

  • Tactex website
  • Brevet WO 0306450

    Dynamic Grip Recognition
    Poigne dynamique

    The US patent #6,563,940 granted to Michael Recce from the New Jersey Institute of Technology describes a behavioral biometrics called Dynamic Grip Recognition, primarily developed for guns.
    A users initially grips a handle containing pressure sensors, and a pressure signature profile is stored that is based on hand position of the user's handgrip on the particular device as indicated by a change in pressure, pressure as a function of position on the particular device; and pressure as a function of time. A comparator compiles the pressure signature profile and compares it with profiles is storage to determined whether a match exists. Upon finding a match, a control unit releases an interlocking unit to enable the user to operate the device because he/she is authorized.
    Le brevet US 6,563,940 accordé à Michael Recce du New Jersey Institute of Technology décrit une technique biométrique appelée "poigne dynamique" (je trouverai peut-être plus tard une meilleure traduction...).
    Elle est basée sur le profil de pression qu'exerce la main sur la crosse d'un révolver, et de la manière que cette pression est exercée dans le temps.

  • Press release from NJIT+Metal Storm+Taurus (end 2003)
  • Dynamic Grip NJIT

    Bone sound transmission
    Transmission du son par les os

    Sony issued a patent (US 2003/0113001) where a speaker send a sound pulse in the finger, which is modified by the flesh and bone, and read with a microphone, enabling personal identification.
    Sony a publié un brevet où un haut-parleur envoie une impulsion sonore dans le doigt, qui est modifiée en traversant la chair et l'os, lue avec un microphone, ce qui permettrait l'identification des individus.

    Bioelectric field
    Champ bioélectrique

    (2003) "BIOFINDER II detects the bioelectric fields of people. Bioelectric fields are biological passwords allowing direct identification of individuals via their invisible bioelectric fields. Since bioelectric fields are Mother Nature’s built-in identification systems, they are impossible to duplicate and always unique to each individual as DNA."
    "BIOFINDER II détecte le champ électrique des gens. Les champs bioélectriques sont des mots de passe permettant l'identification directe d'individus en utilisant leur champ bioélectrique invisible. Comme les champs bioélectriques sont des systèmes d'identification intégrés par Dame Nature, ils sont impossibles à copier et toujours uniques à l'instar de l'ADN."

  • Biofinder
  • Biofinder II & III from Hometoys
  • (This was directly extracted from this website. Hard to believe.
    C'est un extrait de ce site web. Difficile à croire.)

    (2008) Remote detection of human electrophysiological signals using electric potential sensors from R. J. Prance & als may be a start (SPIE source)

     Block diagram of a generic electric-potential sensor Signal from sensor at 40cm from the chest of a seated subject

    Bio-Dynamic signature
    Signature Bio-Dynamique

    (2005 June) Idesia unveils the BDS500: a reader where you [gently place any two fingers from both hands, one on each contact sensor for just a few seconds. IDesia scientists have discovered a novel, natural Bio-Dynamic Signature ( BDS ) in humans - an electro bio signature that is unique to each individual and can be used to accurately identify any one person from all others.
    Unlike most biometric technologies, which use pictures or static bio-signals to enroll and identify a person, BDS is based on intrinsic electro-biometric dynamic signals acquired by merely touching a small conductive or metal surface.] [copied from their website]
    Well, I think they are mainly making an electrocardiogram, it is likely the most important signal they can read using such a method.

    (2005 June) Idesia dévoile le BDS500: un lecteur où vous placez 2 doigts, un de chaque main, sur chacun des contacts pendant quelques secondes. Ils l'appellent la "signature bio-dynamique".
    Je pense qu'ils font essentiellement un électrocardiogramme, c'est probablement les signaux du coeur qui sont le principal composant de l'information lue de cette manière.

    Idesia BDS500


    Person identification based on spectral information extracted from the EEG.
    Identification basée sur l'information spectrale de l'électro-encéphalogramme.

  • (1999) Marios Poulos.
  • The electroencephalogram as a biometrics (Paranjape & als)
  • (2005) Person Authentication using brainwaves (Sébastien Marcel & als)
  • (2005) Pass-thoughts: Authenticating With Our Minds by Julie Thorpe and als.
  • (2006) Dimitrios Tzovaras and his colleagues at the Center for Research and Technology Hellas in Greece have established a system which relies on measured activity in the brain to form a security protocol that's "difficult to forge." EU project HUMABIO.
  • (2011) The Starfast project (Starlab Barcelona) is using the Enobio material.
  • (2014) Human Brain Distinctiveness Based on EEG Spectral Coherence Connectivity (La Rocca & als.)
  • EEG

    Cognitive biometrics

    Identification based on individual's unique behavioral characteristics.
    Identification basée sur la collecte d'information comportementales.

  • (2006) Cogneto Unomi (cited from website):
    UNOMI™ is powered by cognometrics, a hardware-free technology that integrates dynamic biometrics with cognitive psychology – examining multiple physical, behavioral and cognitive characteristics as well as local and global risk factors to validate identity claims
    Well, looking at their demo, it appears to be mainly something close to a password-like: you need to remind some good memories for instance.

  • Frontal Sinus Recognition

    The frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual.
    Identification basée sur la forme du sinus.

  • (2008 Mar) Falguera & als from UNESP (Brazil) presented a paper at the SPIE Defense & Security with matching results of the frontal sinus Frontal Sinus Recognition Using Image Foresting Transform and Shape Context
  • (2009 Feb) An Automatic Recognition of the Frontal Sinus in X-Ray Images of Skull
    Tabor, Z. ; Karpisz, D. ; Wojnar, L. ; Kowalski, P. (Inst. of Appl. Comput. Sci., Cracow)
  • Frontal Sinus radiograph Frontal Sinus extraction

    Knee Recognition

    Lior Shamir publishes:

  • (2009 Jan) Biometric identification using knee X-rays, Int. J. of Biometrics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 365-370. Inderscience, 2009
    Experimental results show that the rank-10 identification accuracy using a dataset of 425 individuals is ~56%, and the rank-1 accuracy is ~34%.
  • (2013 Jan) MRI-based knee image for personal identification, Int. J. Biometrics, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp.113–125
    Knee MRI images of 2,686 different patients were used in the experiment, and analysed using the wndchrm image classification scheme. Experimental results show that the rank-10 identification accuracy using the MRI knee images is ~93% for a dataset of 100 individuals, and ~45% for the entire dataset of 2,686 persons.

  • Butt Recognition

    (2011 Dec) Engineers from the Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology in Tokyo have developed a novel biometric automotive anti-theft system that uses the unique shape of your butt to identify you.

    The driver’s seat is fitted with 360 sensors that measure pressure according to a scale of zero to 256. Each reading is plotted to create a 3-D image — essentially a topographic map of your ass — used as a personal identifier.

  • The Car of Tomorrow Recognizes Your Butt (Wired)
  • japanese paper

  • Behavioral Recognition

    (2011) We propose implicit authentication, an approach that uses observations of user behavior for authentication. Most people are creatures of habit - a person goes to work in the morning, perhaps with a stop at the coffee shop, but almost always using the same route. Once at work, she might remain in the general vicinity of her office building until lunch time. In the afternoon, perhaps she calls home and picks up her child from school. In the evening, she goes home. Throughout the day, she checks her various email accounts. Perhaps she also uses online banking and sometimes relies on her smartphone for access away from home. Weekly visits to the grocery store, regular calls to family members, etc. are all rich information that could be gathered and recorded almost entirely using smartphones.

  • Implicit Authentication through Learning User Behavior

  • Biometrics visitors