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Fingerprint, palmprint, pores
Empreintes digitales, palmaires, pores


Empreinte digitale, impress鉶 digital (portugais), fingerprint (anglais), huella dactilar o huellas digitales (espagnol), linii papilarnych (polonais), impronte digitali (italien), Fingerabdr點k (allemand), ...

What is a fingerprint?

Finger skin is made of friction ridges, with pores (sweat glands). Friction ridges are created during f渢al live and only the general shape is genetically defined. Friction ridges remains the same all life long, only growing up to adult size. They reconstruct the same if not too severe injury.
La peau des doigts est constitu閑 des empreintes digitales, qui servent essentiellement aggriper les objets par friction. Les cr阾es ont des pores, les ouvertures des glandes sudoripares. Les empreintes digitales sont cr殚es durant la vie f渢ale, et seule l'allure g閚閞ale est g閚閠iquement d閒inie. Les empreintes restent les m阭es toutes la vie durant, avec un simple accroissement jusqu' la taille adulte. Elles se r間閚鑢ent si la blessure n'est pas trop importante.

  • Animation about fingerprint growth (clpex.com).
  • D閒initions

    Minutiae are the discontinuities of the ridges:
    Les minuties sont les discontinuit閟 des cr阾es:

  • Endings, the points at which a ridge stops
  • Bifurcations, the point at which one ridge divides into two
  • Dots, very small ridges
  • Islands, ridges slightly longer than dots, occupying a middle space between two temporarily divergent ridges
  • Ponds or lakes, empty spaces between two temporarily divergent ridges
  • Spurs, a notch protruding from a ridge
  • Bridges, small ridges joining two longer adjacent ridges
  • Crossovers, two ridges which cross each other
  • The core is the inner point, normally in the middle of the print, around which swirls, loops, or arches center. It is frequently characterized by a ridge ending and several acutely curved ridges.
  • Deltas are the points, normally at the lower left and right hand of the fingerprint, around which a triangular series of ridges center.
  • Twins have different fingerprints
    Les jumeaux ont des empreintes diff閞entes

    While the overall appearence of monozygotic (identical) twins' fingerprints is often similar (a and c), they differ in the fine details (the locations of ridge starting and stopping); in addition, they are no more similar to each other than to some prints of unrelated individuals (b).
    Bien que l'apparence globale des empreintes de jumeaux monozygotes soient souvent tr鑣 similaires (a et c), elles diff鑢ent dans les d閠ails (d閎ut et fin des lignes); de plus, elles ne sont pas plus similaires qu'avec des empreintes d'invidus sans liens de parent (b).
    Twins are a) and c)

    Also, like twins, a clone is not a perfect copy, and fingerprints (and other non-genenic traits) will be different (recall this point when you see a movie such as The 6th day).
    Un clone sera d'ailleurs aussi diff閞ent qu'un vrai jumeau peut l'阾re, et ses empreintes seront diff閞entes de celles du donneur g閚閠ique (et rappelez-vous ce d閠ail quand vous verrez un film comme A l'aube du 6i鑝e jour).

    Some people have unusual fingerprints
    Certaines personnes ont des empreintes inhabituelles

    Some people have some skin diseases which prevent normal formation of fingerprints, and we even know the case of one family which have no fingerprints (for genetic reason, probably). Also, the Magali (Naegeli) syndroma (a malfunction of a protein) prevents the formation of fingerprints. Born Without Fingerprint Patterns. Without a Trace: A Hand With No Fingerprints
    In Taiwan, the Huang-Tien family has no fingerprint for at least five generations.
    Certaines personnes ont une maladie de peau qui emp阠he une formation utilisable des empreintes, et on a m阭e report le cas d'une famille qui n'avait pas d'empreintes digitales (une raison g閚閠ique, probablement). Le syndrome de Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn (causant un mauvais fonctionnement d'une proteine) emp阠he la formation des empreintes.
    A Taiwan, la famille Huang-Tien n'a pas d'empreintes digitales depuis cinq g閚閞ations.

    Huang-Tien family no fingerprint

    Travel warning with capecitabine (Annals of Oncology Advance Access published online on May 26, 2009)
    Capecitabine has been shown to have single-agent activity in recurrent and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In summary, patients taking long-term capecitabine may have problems with regards to fingerprint identification when they enter United States' ports or other countries that require fingerprint identification and should be warned about this.

    A Mutation in a Skin-Specific Isoform of SMARCAD1 Causes Autosomal-Dominant Adermatoglyphia

    (2011) Monogenic disorders offer unique opportunities for researchers to shed light upon fundamental physiological processes in humans. We investigated a large family affected with autosomal-dominant adermatoglyphia (absence of fingerprints) also known as the 搃mmigration delay disease. Using linkage and haplotype analyses, we mapped the disease phenotype to 4q22. One of the genes located in this interval is SMARCAD1, a member of the SNF subfamily of the helicase protein superfamily. We demonstrated the existence of a short isoform of SMARCAD1 exclusively expressed in the skin. Sequencing of all SMARCAD1 coding and noncoding exons revealed a heterozygous transversion predicted to disrupt a conserved donor splice site adjacent to the 3? end of a noncoding exon uniquely present in the skin-specific short isoform of the gene. This mutation segregated with the disease phenotype throughout the entire family. Using a minigene system, we found that this mutation causes aberrant splicing, resulting in decreased stability of the short RNA isoform as predicted by computational analysis and shown by RT-PCR. Taken together, the present findings implicate a skin-specific isoform of SMARCAD1 in the regulation of dermatoglyph development.

    Some skin diseases such as psoriasis cause problems for proper fingerprint recognition.
    Certaines maladies de peau comme le psoriasis provoquent des probl鑝es pour l'identification par les empreintes

    Scars produce some unusual patterns that are easily recognizable.
    Les cicatrices produisent des dessins inhabituels ais閙ent reconnaissables.


    (2006 Dec) A chinese thief born without fingerprint has taken advantage of this.

    For more information:
  • Ridges and Furrows: an excellent website to know more about fingerprints. history, anatomy, AFIS...
  • fingerprints.tk about latent fingerprints
  • Latent Fingerprint Processing Techniques
  • History of fingerprints

    Here are some links to know more about the history of fingerprints. It is unuseful for me to make a page about this!

  • A history of dermatoglyphics, palmistry & character identity by Ed. Campbell
  • (Short) history of fingerprints (Aladdin)
  • Yet another history of fingerprints
  • Fingerprints and art

    In some cases, fingerprints left by the artist enabled to clarify questions about authorship and dating.

  • Peter Paul Biro ~Fine Art Restoration & Forensic studies in Art

  • Fingerprints and animals

    Not only humans have fingerprints:

  • Primates (chimpanzee...): well, that was easy to guess, but don't you know that some primates have also fingerprints on their tail
  • See also the Manfred Bromba's Biometric Animals page related to zebra, fish...

  • As shown by Henneberg & als from the Department of Anatomical Sciences, University of Adelaide, koalas have fingerprints.

  • Koala is the left fingerprint, human right

    Koala Orang-Outang

    from vokrugsveta

    Fingerprint sensing techniques

    Many sensing techniques to capture fingerprint have been developed. See the fingerprint sensors page to get more information about live fingerprint sensors, as well as links to sensor manufacturers.
    De nombreuses techniques de capture d'empreintes ont 閠 d関elopp閑s. Voir la page sur les capteurs d'empreintes digitales pour plus d'information sur les captures directes (live) partir du doigt, ainsi que des liens vers les fabriquants de capteurs.

    Fingerprint recognition

    Many algorithms for fingerprint recognition have been developed. See the fingerprint algorithms page to get more information, as well as algorithm makers.
    De nombreux algorithmes ont 閠 d関elopp閟. Voir la page sur les algorithmes de reconnaissance d'empreintes digitales pour plus d'information, ainsi que des liens vers des concepteurs d'algorithmes.

    How old a fingerprint is?

    (2010) Forensic Scientists at the University of Sussex determined that the fingerprint抯 electrical activity decays over time. Imaging electrostatic fingerprints with implications for a forensic timeline Philip Watson, Robert J. Prance, Sam T. Beardsmore-Rust, Helen Prance / Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Engineering and Design, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QT, United Kingdom

    Empreinte palmaire


    Friction ridges also exist on the palm, and can be used for authentication, as well as creases.
    La paume de la main est aussi form閑 d'empreintes digitales qui peuvent servir pour l'identification, ainsi que les "lignes de la main".

  • NEC Solutions America Palmprint systems
  • Printrak (Motorola) LSS3000
  • Biometric Parners TPS 300 Touchless Palm Sensor
  • CrossMatch ID2500 (May 2004)
  • Palmprint reader
    Biometric Research Center

  • (2006 Oct) Rimax Contactless PalmScan
  • Grupo CDW Contactless Rimax Staff On Time Palm Scan
  • Distributed also by Datacab group's Contactless Rimax Staff On Time Palm Scan
  • Rimax PalmScan


    In some countries, a footprint of each baby is collected for identification purpose.
    Dans certains pays, l'empreinte du pied des b閎閟 est captur閑 des fins d'identification.

    Baby footprint


    Position of the pores is also a distinctive features, but requires higher resolution scanner, typically 1000dpi, as a pores is about 60 microns, and regular fingerprint sensors are 500dpi which is 50 microns pitch.
    La position des pores est aussi consid閞閑s comme une caract閞istiques bien particuli鑢e chaque individu, mais requiert des lecteurs de plus haute r閟olution, environ 1000 points par pouce, car un pore fait environ 60 microns, et les capteurs d'empreintes digitales habituels font 500 points par pouce, soit un pas de 50 microns.

    There is no commercial systems using pore information for authentication, only some R & D.
    Aucun syst鑝e commercial n'utilise les pores pour l'identification, c'est rest au niveau de la R & D.

  • Automated system for fingerprint authentication using pores and ridge structure. Jonathan D. Stosz Lisa A. Alyea. SPIE 1994
  • Poroscopy: a method of personal identification revisited
  • (2014) An interesting article about pores: Hydrochromic conjugated polymers for human sweat pore mapping. Some pores does not produce sweat!
  • skin
  • (2014) An interesting article about pores: Hydrochromic conjugated polymers for human sweat pore mapping (Joosub Lee & als).

    Some pores do not produce sweat!
  • active pores


    See the standards page.

    Biometrics visitors