Fingerprint algorithms
Algorithmes de reconnaissance d'empreintes digitales

Comparison methods / méthodes de comparaison

If manual comparison by a fingerprint expert is always done to say if two fingerprint images are coming from the same finger in critical cases, automated methods are widely used now.
Si un expert en empreintes digitales effectue toujours une comparaison manuelle pour dire si deux images d'empreintes proviennent du même doigt dans les cas critiques, les méthodes automatiques sont à présent partout utilisées.

Many different algorithm types exist:
De nombreuses techniques existent:

  • Direct (optical) correlation is practically not used, as not very efficient for large database.
    La comparaison directe par corrélation des images n'est pratiquement plus utilisée, car assez peu efficace pour les grandes bases de données.

  • The general shape of the fingerprint is generally used to pre-process the images, and reduce the search in large databases. This uses the general directions of the lines of the fingerprint, and the presence of the core and the delta. Several categories have been defined in the Henry system: whorl, right loop, left loop, arch, and tented arch.
    L'allure générale de l'empreinte est généralement utilisée pour effectuer un premier tri des images, afin de réduire les temps de recherche dans les grandes base de données. On utilise la direction générale des lignes, ainsi que le coeur et le delta de l'empreinte. Plusieurs catégories ont été définies dans le système d'Henry: tourbillon, boucle à droite, boucle à gauche, arche.

  • Catégories
    minutiae
  • Most algorithms are using minutiae, the specific points like ridges ending, bifurcation... Only the position and direction of these features are stored in the signature for further comparison.
    La plupart des algorithmes utilisent les minuties, ces points spécifiques comme les fin de lignes, les embranchements... Seules les positions et directions de ces points sont stockées dans la signature de l'empreinte pour les futures comparaisons.

  • Minutiae definition
    Ridge count
  • Some algorithms counts the number of ridges between particular points, generally the minutiae, instead of the distances computed from the position.
    Certains algorithmes comptent le nombre de lignes entre deux points, généralement des minuties, au lieu des distances calculées à partir des positions.
  • Pattern matching algorithms are using the general shape of the ridges. The fingerprint is divided in small sectors, and the ridge direction, phase and pitch are extracted and stored.
    Les algorithmes basés sur la corrélation utilisent la forme générale des lignes. L'empreinte est divisée en petits secteurs où la direction, la phase et le pas des lignes sont extraits puis stockés.

  • Very often, algorithms are using a combination of all theses techniques.
    Il est fréquent que les algorithmes combinent ces diverses techniques.

    Matching of a "ten print card" fingerprint with a latent fingerprint using minutiae.
    Accord entre une image d'empreinte provenant d'un enregistrement sur fiche (fiche de police où les 10 doigts encrées sont imprimés) et une empreinte latente, utilisant les minuties.
    ten print card matching latent print


    What is the probability of two fingerprints to match?
    Quelle est la probabilité que deux empreintes soient identiques?

    “On the individuality of fingerprints” (Pankanti/IBM) estimated to 6.10-8 the probability for 12 minutiae matching among 36 to match, but lots of estimations exist…
    L'article "On the individuality of fingerprints” (Pankanti/IBM) estime à 6.10-8 la probabilité que 12 minuties parmi 36 correspondent, mais de nombreuses estimations existent...

    In the following array, M & R defines “regions”, N minutiae.
    Dans le tabeau suivant, M & R sont les "régions", et N le nombre de minuties.


    For more information / Pour plus d'information:

  • Tutorial from BarCode
  • You will find also many information on the commercial websites below.

    Sensor + algorithm integration

    Integration of the sensor and the recognition algorithm has started:

  • NTT (1999): A Single-Chip Fingerprint Sensor and Identifier (Shigematsu & als)

  • Fingerprint algorithms:

    See also the fingerprint sensors as some sensor manufacturers are including the authentication software in their offer.
    Voir aussi les capteurs d'empreintes car certains fabriquants de capteurs incluent leur soft d'authentification dans leur offre.

    1. 123 ID (USA) [CVT]
    2. Acter (Switzerland) [acterBIOLIB]
    3. ActivCard (Canada)
    4. Aldebaran Systems (USA) [participated to FVC2002]
    5. Antheus Technology (Brasil, USA) [Agora]
    6. APRO Technology (Japan)
    7. AST (Spain) [ASTAS]
    8. Astro Datensysteme (Germany) [BioTouch]
    9. Av@lon Systems / Semantic system (Switzerland) [Ultramatch] [participated to FpEVT 2003, NIST]
    10. Beijing BaiXinTong Electronic Tech (China) [participated to FVC2006]
    11. Beijing Smackbio Technology (China) [Smackfinger] [participated to FVC2006]
    12. Beijing HanWang Technology (China) [participated to FVC2004]
    13. Bergdata (CDVI) (Germany, France) [bdfis]
    14. BeyondLSI (Japan)
    15. BioCert (USA?) [BioCert]
    16. BIO-Key (USA) [VST]
    17. Biolink (USA) [U-Match]
    18. Biometrix (Austria) [BioCheck]
    19. Bionopoly (USA)
    20. Bioscrypt (Canada, USA) [Bioscrypt Core, V-Pass...]
    21. Bromba (Germany) (spin-off from Siemens, end 2003)
    22. CASIA Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China) [participated to FVC2004]
    23. Casio (Japan) [VeriPat]
    24. CBA-Japan (Japan) [FCHIP2]
    25. The Chinese University of Hong-Kong (Hong-Kong) [for smartcard (2004)]
    26. Cogent (USA) [Bioswipe] is 3M (2010)
    27. ComnetiX (Canada)
    28. Cottonwood (CCS) (seems no more available 03/2004)
    29. Count Me In (USA) [LightningID] (Digital Persona?)
    30. CrossMatch (USA) [ID 500...]
    31. Daimin (Korea)
    32. Dalian University of Technology (China) [FVC2006]
    33. Datamicro (Russia) [participated to FVC2002, FVC2004]
    34. DDS Digital Development Systems (Japan) [UBF]
    35. Dermalog (Germany)
    36. Beijing Fingerpass / labs: Digital Fingerpass Corporation (China)
    37. DTK Digital Tech Korea
    38. Ekey (Austria) [TOCAxxx]
    39. Fidelica (USA) 27 feb 2004: announced the availability of the FBA-4001 matching algorithm.
    40. Fingerpin AG (Switzerland) (May 2004: access problem to website)
    41. FIST (Korea) [Finguard]
    42. Fujitsu (Japan)
    43. Futronic Technology (China) [participated to FVC2004]
    44. Genologic (Germany)
    45. Gevarius (Russia) [participated to FVC2004]
    46. Golden Finger Systems (USA?) [participated to FpEVT 2003, NIST]
    47. Griaule (Brasil) [Pequi]
    48. GuangZhou Comet Technology Development (China) [participated to FVC2006]
    49. Hyundai (Korea) [FDI(fingerPrint Digital Identity)]
    50. HZMS Biometrics (China) [participated to FVC2002]
    51. ID Solutions (USA & Russia)
    52. ID3 semiconductors (France) [Biothentic, Certis]
    53. Idencom (Germany) [Biokey]
    54. Ident (Germany)
    55. Identalink (Germany) [BioPassport]
    56. Identix (USA) (acquired Identicator 1999, merge with Visionics 2002)
    57. Beijing IDWorld (China)
    58. iFingerSys (Austria) linked to Joanneum Research
    59. Ikendi (Germany) [IKxxx]
    60. Init(Brasil) [FBIC]
    61. ImageWare Systems (USA) [IWS biometric engine]
    62. Innovatrics (France/Slovakia) [Iengine] created by Jan Lunter (France) [participated to FVC2004]
    63. Integral Ltd (Russia) [participated to FVC2004] link to TestTech
    64. ISL (UK) [SentryNET]
    65. Jaypeetex (India)
    66. JM Tronics (Malaysia)
    67. Labcal (Canada) [.smartprint]
    68. LGE Institute of Technology (Korea) [FVC2006]
    69. Mantra Technologies (India) [FVS engine]
    70. Miaxis (China) [eBioxxxx]
    71. Morphosoric (Germany)
    72. Motorola (USA) (acquired Printrak 2000).
    73. NEC Solutions America (USA)
    74. Neurodynamics (UK) [Deixis]
    75. Neurotechnology (Lithuania) (formerly Neurotechnologija / 2008) [VeriFinger]
    76. Nexign (Korea)
    77. NitGen (Korea)
    78. NIST (USA)
    79. Nyoun (Korea) [participated to FVC2004]
    80. ODI (USA)
    81. Optel (Poland)
    82. Papillon Systems (Russia)
    83. PrintScan / Computer Experts [WinFing]
    84. Qingsong (China)
    85. Raytheon (USA)
    86. Sagem Morpho (France)
    87. SecuIt (Korea) [Secuxxx]
    88. Sense Holdings (USA) [BioCode]
    89. Shanghai Tongji / Smartech (USA, China)
    90. Shanghai Fingertech Information (China)
    91. Siemens (Austria)
    92. Silex (Japan)
    93. Sonda (Russia)
    94. Startek (Taiwan)
    95. Suprema (Korea) [Unifinger]
    96. Technoimagia (Japan) [FP-xxx]
    97. TeKey Research Group (Israel)
    98. Thales Security Systems (France)
    99. The Phoenix Group (USA) [Afix tracker]
    100. Testech inc. (Korea) [Bio-I]
    101. Shanghai Tongji Smartech (China) [Corn Technology]
    102. Ultrascan (USA)
    103. Unicomp technology (China) [FVC2006]
    104. Veridt (formerly Biocentric Solutions, May 2004) (USA) [BioHub, BioSentry]
    105. Warwick Warp (UK) [WarpFinger]
    106. Xi'an Qingsong Tech Co (China) [Timeasy, Touchsmart]
    107. Zaklad Techniki Mikroprocesorowej (Poland) [participated to FVC2004]
    108. Zefyr (France)
    109. ZK software (China) [ZK finger]

    110. Independent developers:
      Développeurs indépendants:

    111. Andrei Nikiforov (now at Bio-key?)
    112. Ariel Unanue (Argentina) [BiofingerAI] [participated to FVC2004]
    113. Christian Pötzsch (Germany 2001) Fingerprint Detection System Auf der Basis von Neuronalen Netzen
    114. Deng Guoquiang (China) [participated to FVC2004, FVC2006]
    115. Ilya Belogin (Russia) [participated to FVC2006]
    116. Ilya Poshivaylo (Russia) [participated to FVC2006]
    117. Ji Hui (China) [participated to FVC2004, FVC2006]
    118. Li Lijuan (China) [participated to FVC2004]
    119. Song Yong (China) [participated to FVC2006]
    120. Wei Wang (China) [participated to FVC2006]
    121. Xu Zengbo (China) [participated to FVC2006]
    122. Yang Qianbang (China) [participated to FVC2006]
    123. Yasar TUTUK & Semsi Cihan Yucel (Turquie) [Inspector]

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